US trade (export - import) with Costa Rica in 2018

Published or Updated: May 19, 2019

The report on US foreign trade in goods with Costa Rica in 2018: exports, imports, balance, product types and groups, dynamics.

US Trade with Costa Rica

In 2018, US trade with Costa Rica totaled $11.5 billion, up 4.24% ($0.5 billion) from 2017.

US exports to Costa Rica in 2018 totaled $6.4 billion, up 2.36% ($0.1 billion) from 2017.

US imports from Costa Rica in 2018 totaled $5.1 billion, up 6.66% ($0.3 billion) from 2017.

US trade surplus with Costa Rica in 2018 was $1.2 billion, a 12.39% decrease ($0.2 billion) over 2017.

Costa Rica was the US 45th largest trading partner in 2018 (down from 44th in 2017), accounting for 0.2693% of US total trade (down from 0.2797% in 2017).

Costa Rica was the US 38th largest export market in 2018 (just as in 2017), accounting for 0.3833% of US total exports (down from 0.4031% in 2017).

Costa Rica was the US 48th largest supplier in 2018 (just as in 2017), accounting for 0.1968% of US total imports (down from 0.2004% in 2017).

US Exports to Costa Rica

The major share of US exports to Costa Rica in 2018 (and in 2017) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 34.51% of US total exports to Costa Rica (36.80% in 2017);
  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 24.53% of US total exports to Costa Rica (23.01% in 2017);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 13.36% of US total exports to Costa Rica (12.97% in 2017);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 11.10% of US total exports to Costa Rica (11.38% in 2017);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 4.85% of US total exports to Costa Rica (4.24% in 2017);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 2.51% of US total exports to Costa Rica (2.79% in 2017);
  • Textiles, textile products and footwear (HS codes 50-67) - 2.32% of US total exports to Costa Rica (2.09% in 2017).

The largest gains in US exports to Costa Rica in 2018 over 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes (HS code 27) - an increase of $130.9 million;
  • Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof (HS code 90) - an increase of $94.7 million;
  • Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard (HS code 48) - an increase of $50.8 million;
  • Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed (HS code 23) - an increase of $31.4 million.

The largest declines in US exports to Costa Rica in 2018 over 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (HS code 88) - a decrease of $150.9 million;
  • Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof (HS code 87) - a decrease of $25.9 million;
  • Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder (HS code 12) - a decrease of $20.8 million.
US exports to Costa Rica in 2018 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value
of exports
in 2018
(USD thousand)
Share
in total export
(%)
Value
of exports
in 2017
(USD thousand)
Change
in 2018
over 2017
(%)
01 Live animals 6,534.9 0.10 5,575.417.21
02 Meat and edible meat offal 53,172.7 0.83 53,116.30.11
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 2,187.5 0.03 2,548.1-14.15
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 21,839.7 0.34 17,430.525.30
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 1,256.4 0.02 2,196.4-42.80
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 289.5 0.00 412.2-29.76
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 6,136.3 0.10 11,557.9-46.91
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 26,096.9 0.41 26,292.3-0.74
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 5,040.1 0.08 4,832.94.29
10 Cereals 200,945.1 3.15 214,477.9-6.31
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 1,655.4 0.03 1,610.22.81
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 107,496.7 1.68 128,271.6-16.20
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 730.7 0.01 695.65.06
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 48.4 0.00 23.8103.04
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 11,114.1 0.17 9,565.116.19
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 13,435.2 0.21 12,507.87.41
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 5,548.6 0.09 6,333.7-12.40
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 12,457.5 0.20 15,863.4-21.47
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 29,971.5 0.47 28,217.76.22
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 50,243.7 0.79 49,371.31.77
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 45,563.0 0.71 41,764.79.09
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 19,557.0 0.31 21,267.7-8.04
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 86,608.2 1.36 55,233.556.80
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 62.6 0.00 133.2-52.98
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 7,876.2 0.12 7,871.20.06
26 Ores, slag and ash 70.1 0.00 27.8152.06
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 1,556,947.9 24.40 1,426,088.79.18
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 33,456.8 0.52 24,301.037.68
29 Organic chemicals 50,595.9 0.79 42,338.019.50
30 Pharmaceutical products 35,632.6 0.56 25,821.837.99
31 Fertilizers 8,848.0 0.14 20,528.8-56.90
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 36,169.5 0.57 36,786.4-1.68
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 36,117.2 0.57 37,679.6-4.15
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 28,719.4 0.45 30,380.1-5.47
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 14,753.3 0.23 14,542.51.45
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 1,645.9 0.03 2,129.7-22.72
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 5,335.4 0.08 5,741.7-7.08
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 81,326.3 1.27 69,704.716.67
39 Plastics and articles thereof 472,593.5 7.41 458,819.73.00
40 Rubber and articles thereof 47,279.8 0.74 39,618.919.34
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 5,493.9 0.09 5,068.78.39
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 10,256.8 0.16 5,804.476.71
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 749.8 0.01 289.7158.84
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 3,831.7 0.06 5,724.3-33.06
45 Cork and articles of cork 45.2 0.00 73.0-38.10
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 81.1 0.00 143.4-43.41
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 10,359.7 0.16 11,023.2-6.02
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 282,226.5 4.42 231,460.221.93
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 12,570.6 0.20 16,131.6-22.07
50 Silk 345.3 0.01 322.96.94
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 12.9 0.00 0.0
52 Cotton 18,763.4 0.29 13,725.336.71
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 99.9 0.00 86.715.13
54 Man-made filaments 17,453.8 0.27 16,600.15.14
55 Man-made staple fibers 3,297.9 0.05 4,001.6-17.59
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 21,316.2 0.33 14,963.942.45
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 3,050.3 0.05 3,102.8-1.69
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 1,231.2 0.02 1,793.1-31.34
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 16,228.2 0.25 13,936.916.44
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 5,760.2 0.09 5,698.71.08
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 10,316.1 0.16 11,050.0-6.64
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 22,624.3 0.35 14,149.259.90
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 20,288.2 0.32 21,955.1-7.59
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 5,894.6 0.09 7,302.2-19.28
65 Headgear and parts thereof 662.8 0.01 737.8-10.17
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 249.5 0.00 265.4-6.01
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 207.7 0.00 462.3-55.07
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 14,201.7 0.22 15,156.9-6.30
69 Ceramic products 5,661.7 0.09 7,021.0-19.36
70 Glass and glassware 14,150.6 0.22 12,224.415.76
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 35,073.3 0.55 31,642.410.84
72 Iron and steel 24,866.9 0.39 29,519.7-15.76
73 Articles of iron or steel 63,112.8 0.99 68,917.4-8.42
74 Copper and articles thereof 4,330.6 0.07 4,771.1-9.23
75 Nickel and articles thereof 11,291.7 0.18 9,414.119.94
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 10,531.9 0.17 13,549.1-22.27
78 Lead and articles thereof 919.7 0.01 328.9179.66
79 Zinc and articles thereof 410.4 0.01 1,001.0-59.00
80 Tin and articles thereof 1,238.8 0.02 1,171.75.73
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 9,938.7 0.16 7,891.825.94
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 22,424.9 0.35 24,486.7-8.42
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 10,947.3 0.17 12,651.5-13.47
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 543,996.4 8.53 557,166.6-2.36
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 831,468.4 13.03 829,798.00.20
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 768.4 0.01 872.7-11.95
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 162,579.4 2.55 188,445.3-13.73
88 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof 40,861.3 0.64 191,787.5-78.69
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 61,722.9 0.97 59,731.43.33
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 560,166.8 8.78 465,502.620.34
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 5,123.0 0.08 9,803.7-47.74
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 1,679.8 0.03 2,029.9-17.25
93 Arms and ammunition; parts and accessories thereof 5,233.6 0.08 3,824.036.86
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 49,866.3 0.78 52,035.2-4.17
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 33,508.1 0.53 29,805.112.42
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 15,977.9 0.25 16,356.1-2.31
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 572.5 0.01 463.923.43
99 Commodities not specified according to kind 238,355.5 3.74 227,660.24.70

US Imports from Costa Rica

The major share of US imports from Costa Rica in 2018 (and in 2017) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 48.49% of US total imports from Costa Rica (46.06% in 2017);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 36.26% of US total imports from Costa Rica (39.25% in 2017);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 6.73% of US total imports from Costa Rica (6.22% in 2017);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 1.78% of US total imports from Costa Rica (1.91% in 2017);
  • Precious metals and stones (HS code 71) - 1.09% of US total imports from Costa Rica (1.42% in 2017).

The largest gains in US imports from Costa Rica in 2018 over 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof (HS code 90) - an increase of $237.8 million;
  • Commodities not specified according to kind (HS code 99) - an increase of $42.0 million;
  • Rubber and articles thereof (HS code 40) - an increase of $40.0 million;
  • Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles (HS code 85) - an increase of $27.5 million;
  • Coffee, tea, maté and spices (HS code 09) - an increase of $25.0 million.

The largest declines in US imports from Costa Rica in 2018 over the 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons (HS code 08) - a decrease of $52.7 million;
  • Sugars and sugar confectionery (HS code 17) - a decrease of $18.8 million;
  • Iron and steel (HS code 72) - a decrease of $16.4 million.
US imports from Costa Rica in 2018 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value
of imports
in 2018
(USD thousand)
Share
in total import
(%)
Value
of imports
in 2017
USD thousand)
Change
in 2018
over 2017
(%)
01 Live animals 1,181.0 0.02 1,078.09.55
02 Meat and edible meat offal 35,655.0 0.69 37,170.5-4.08
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 87,171.2 1.69 73,743.418.21
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 278.6 0.01 82.3238.74
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 438.5 0.01 591.4-25.85
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 61,725.0 1.20 62,629.4-1.44
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 120,806.1 2.35 116,353.83.83
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 1,155,314.6 22.44 1,208,002.3-4.36
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 175,507.0 3.41 150,547.316.58
10 Cereals 5.8 0.00 0.0
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 14.1 0.00 68.2-79.38
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 12,246.6 0.24 12,381.5-1.09
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 3,733.3 0.07 1,672.0123.28
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 963.8 0.02 915.95.23
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 7,729.0 0.15 7,469.53.47
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 35,497.6 0.69 54,262.6-34.58
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 1,108.5 0.02 934.618.61
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 15,176.9 0.29 12,684.519.65
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 135,114.1 2.62 137,994.8-2.09
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 11,369.4 0.22 9,847.415.46
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 2,733.0 0.05 2,942.4-7.11
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 2,671.2 0.05 2,739.1-2.48
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 568.2 0.01 485.716.98
26 Ores, slag and ash 30.7 0.00 0.0
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 155.6 0.00 62.3149.67
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 129.8 0.00 202.9-36.04
29 Organic chemicals 174.9 0.00 339.4-48.48
30 Pharmaceutical products 6,488.9 0.13 3,286.797.43
31 Fertilizers 0.0 0.00 13.8-100.00
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 6,369.8 0.12 5,118.924.44
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 10,854.9 0.21 11,745.7-7.58
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 1,109.4 0.02 1,449.0-23.44
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 139.5 0.00 179.0-22.04
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 41.2 0.00 0.0
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 1,154.7 0.02 7,949.2-85.47
39 Plastics and articles thereof 130,615.7 2.54 120,835.48.09
40 Rubber and articles thereof 189,286.3 3.68 149,325.326.76
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 5.9 0.00 1.4328.38
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 4,160.2 0.08 4,058.02.52
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 1,497.9 0.03 1,254.219.43
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 4,977.4 0.10 4,692.46.07
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 428.9 0.01 435.4-1.47
54 Man-made filaments 10.4 0.00 24.2-57.04
55 Man-made staple fibers 0.7 0.00 0.0
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 2,027.1 0.04 2,216.5-8.54
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 435.1 0.01 636.8-31.67
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 10,812.0 0.21 7,782.438.93
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 24.5 0.00 80.3-69.52
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 19,115.8 0.37 20,923.3-8.64
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 11,978.9 0.23 13,131.0-8.77
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 1,203.0 0.02 1,096.39.73
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 350.7 0.01 76.1361.02
65 Headgear and parts thereof 26.4 0.00 40.1-34.29
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 38.7 0.00 12.1218.63
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 0.4 0.00 0.0
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 13,162.7 0.26 13,951.7-5.65
69 Ceramic products 79.8 0.00 48.664.41
70 Glass and glassware 7,759.7 0.15 7,559.52.65
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 56,146.5 1.09 68,504.9-18.04
72 Iron and steel 15,582.7 0.30 31,937.8-51.21
73 Articles of iron or steel 19,478.9 0.38 12,398.257.11
74 Copper and articles thereof 6,115.0 0.12 7,969.4-23.27
75 Nickel and articles thereof 8,332.0 0.16 9,010.0-7.53
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 24,373.7 0.47 26,309.6-7.36
78 Lead and articles thereof 12,159.3 0.24 490.42,379.64
79 Zinc and articles thereof 592.7 0.01 19.03,022.85
80 Tin and articles thereof 328.3 0.01 237.838.06
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 298.6 0.01 349.5-14.57
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 2,613.0 0.05 2,734.9-4.46
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 1,669.2 0.03 756.0120.80
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 30,350.6 0.59 24,382.024.48
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 318,981.0 6.20 291,485.89.43
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic s28,217.7td/thtdignalling equipment of all kinds 0.0 0.00 34.1-100.00
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 33,080.4 0.64 32,457.81.92
88 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof 1,163.3 0.02 311.7273.26
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 650.4 0.01 287.2126.42
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 2,112,118.1 41.02 1,874,292.612.69
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 3.1 0.00 8.5-63.81
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 5.4 0.00 9.2-41.16
93 Arms and ammunition; parts and accessories thereof 884.5 0.02 698.326.66
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 18,997.3 0.37 19,077.3-0.42
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 28,545.7 0.55 26,326.98.43
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 4,093.2 0.08 6,665.7-38.59
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 1,616.3 0.03 732.1120.78
99 Commodities not specified according to kind 158,643.3 3.08 116,602.736.05
Compiled by «US-EXPORT–IMPORT» based on the statistics of the US Department of Commerce